Language Policy, Curriculum and Methodology
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Language forms a significant aspect of communication, personal interactions, and education. The Common European Framework of References for Languages (CEFR / CEFL / CEFRL) was launched in 2001, as a standard for the definition of the progress made by foreign language learners in Europe. Despite its introduction in 2001, the concept of CEFRL was developed by the Council of Europe in the 1980s as a strategy of promoting free movement of people, technology and information across Europe after the Second World War and the formation of the European Union (EU). CEFRL is now used in many countries outside Europe such as Japan, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia. It provides a basis upon which syllabuses, language guidelines, and examinations are developed.